18 min read

R 311 Pothole Workshop (Code for Pittsburgh)

Goals

  • Learn how R works
  • Gain basic skills for exploratory analysis with R
  • Learn something about local data and potholes!

If we are successful, you should be able to hit the ground running on your own project with R

Setup

Install R from CRAN

  • Use the default options in the installation process

Install RStudio from RStudio

  • RStudio Desktop

What is R

R is an interpreted programming language for statistics

RStudio

Integrated Development Environment for R

  1. Code editor
  2. Console
  3. Workspace (Environment, History, Connections, Git)
  4. Plots and Files (Packages, Help, Viewer)

We will enter our code in the Code Editor panel. When you execute code in the code editor, the output is shown in the Console (or the Plots or Viewer) panel.

Image from the STHDA

Install the tidyverse, lubridate, and ggmap packages

install.packages(c("tidyverse", "lubridate", "ggmap"))
#you will see activity in the console as the packages are installed

Create a folder called “R workshop”

Download the 311 data from the WPRDC

Move that CSV into the “R workshop” folder

How Does R Work?

Basic Functions

  • add
  • subtract
  • strings
1
## [1] 1
1 + 2
## [1] 3
10 / 2
## [1] 5
5 * 2
## [1] 10
"this is a string. strings in R are surrounded by quotation marks."
## [1] "this is a string. strings in R are surrounded by quotation marks."

Type matters

"1" + 1
## Error in "1" + 1: non-numeric argument to binary operator

str() checks the type of the object

str(1)
##  num 1
str("1")
##  chr "1"

Objects, Functions, and Assignment

Reminder that objects are shown in the Environment panel (top right panel)

x
## Error in eval(expr, envir, enclos): object 'x' not found

You assign values to objects using “<-”

x <- 1
x 
## [1] 1

Type out the object’s name and execute it to print it in the console

You can overwrite (or update) an object’s value

x <- 2
x
## [1] 2

You can manipulate objects with operators

x <- 1
y <- 5

x + y
## [1] 6

c() means “concatenate”. It creates vectors

a <- c(x, y)
a
## [1] 1 5

: creates a sequence of numbers

1:10
##  [1]  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9 10

You can perform functions on objects

z <- sum(a)
z
## [1] 6

Dataframes

Dataframes are rectangular objects that consist of rows and columns, similar to what you see in an Excel spreadsheet

my_df <- data.frame(a = 1:5,
                b = 6:10,
                c = c("a", "b", "c", "d", "e"))
my_df
##   a  b c
## 1 1  6 a
## 2 2  7 b
## 3 3  8 c
## 4 4  9 d
## 5 5 10 e

Select individual columns in a dataframe with the $ operator

my_df$a
## [1] 1 2 3 4 5

“<-” and “=” do the same thing. To minimize confusion, many people use “<-” for objects and “=” for assigning variables within functions or dataframes

x <- 1

z <- data.frame(a = 1:5,
                b = 6:10)
z
##   a  b
## 1 1  6
## 2 2  7
## 3 3  8
## 4 4  9
## 5 5 10

Logic

“x == y” means “is x equal to y?”

1 == 2
## [1] FALSE

“!” means “not”

!FALSE
## [1] TRUE

TRUE = 1, FALSE = 0

TRUE + FALSE
## [1] 1
TRUE + TRUE
## [1] 2

R is case-sensitive

"a" == "A"
## [1] FALSE

Loading packages

library(package_name)

You have to load your packages each time you start R. Do not use quotation marks in the library() function

Commenting

Any code that follows a “#” is treated as a comment, and is not executed

1 + 1
## [1] 2
#1 + 1
#code that is "commented out" will not be executed

Comment your code to make sure you understand it. It is aso useful to other people who use your code, including Future You.

Be kind to Future You. Comment your code.

Getting help with R

Use the built-in documentation. Put a “?” before the name of a function to access the documentation in the Help panel

?mean

StackOverflow

Working Directory

The working directory is where your R scripts and your data are stored

How to set up the working directory

This command prints the current working directory

getwd()
## [1] "C:/Users/conor/githubfolder/ctompkins_blog/content/post"

Use the menu to set up your working directory

Session menu -> Set working directory -> choose your folder

This command does the same thing

setwd()

Compare to Excel

R separates the data from the analysis. The data is stored in files (CSV, JSON, etc). The analysis is stored in scripts. This makes it easier to share analysis performed in R. No need to take screenshots of your workflow in Excel. You have a record of everything that was done to the data. R also allows you to scale your analysis up to larger datasets and more complex workflows, where Excel would require lots of risky repetition of the same task.

What is the Tidyverse?

A group of R packages that use a common grammar for wrangling, analyzing, modeling, and graphing data

  • Focus on dataframes
  • Columns and rows

Key Tidyverse functions and operators

  • select columns
  • filter rows
  • mutate new columns
  • group_by and summarize rows
  • ggplot2 your data
  • The pipe %>%
library(tidyverse)
## -- Attaching packages -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- tidyverse 1.2.1 --
## v ggplot2 2.2.1.9000     v purrr   0.2.4     
## v tibble  1.4.2          v dplyr   0.7.4     
## v tidyr   0.8.0          v stringr 1.3.0     
## v readr   1.1.1          v forcats 0.3.0
## -- Conflicts ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- tidyverse_conflicts() --
## x dplyr::filter() masks stats::filter()
## x dplyr::lag()    masks stats::lag()
library(lubridate)
## 
## Attaching package: 'lubridate'
## The following object is masked from 'package:base':
## 
##     date

read_csv() reads CSV files from your working directory

df <- read_csv("your_file_name_here.csv")
## Parsed with column specification:
## cols(
##   `_id` = col_integer(),
##   REQUEST_ID = col_integer(),
##   CREATED_ON = col_datetime(format = ""),
##   REQUEST_TYPE = col_character(),
##   REQUEST_ORIGIN = col_character(),
##   STATUS = col_integer(),
##   DEPARTMENT = col_character(),
##   NEIGHBORHOOD = col_character(),
##   COUNCIL_DISTRICT = col_integer(),
##   WARD = col_integer(),
##   TRACT = col_double(),
##   PUBLIC_WORKS_DIVISION = col_integer(),
##   PLI_DIVISION = col_integer(),
##   POLICE_ZONE = col_integer(),
##   FIRE_ZONE = col_character(),
##   X = col_double(),
##   Y = col_double(),
##   GEO_ACCURACY = col_character()
## )
colnames(df) <- tolower(colnames(df)) #make all the column names lowercase

#initial data munging to get the dates in shape
df %>%
  mutate(date = ymd(str_sub(created_on, 1, 10)),
         time = hms(str_sub(created_on, 11, 18)),
         month = month(date, label = TRUE), 
         year = year(date),
         yday = yday(date)) -> df

Explore the data

df #type the name of the object to preview it
## # A tibble: 225,189 x 23
##     `_id` request_id created_on          request_type       request_origin
##     <int>      <int> <dttm>              <chr>              <chr>         
##  1 154245      54111 2016-03-10 13:52:00 Rodent control     Call Center   
##  2 154246      53833 2016-03-09 14:22:00 Rodent control     Call Center   
##  3 154247      52574 2016-03-03 07:13:00 Potholes           Call Center   
##  4 154248      54293 2016-03-11 10:12:00 Building Without ~ Control Panel 
##  5 154249      53560 2016-03-08 14:57:00 Potholes           Call Center   
##  6 154250      49519 2016-02-22 09:10:00 Potholes           Call Center   
##  7 154251      49484 2016-02-22 08:03:00 Potholes           Call Center   
##  8 154252      53787 2016-03-09 12:21:00 Rodent control     Call Center   
##  9 154253      52887 2016-03-04 12:49:00 Potholes           Call Center   
## 10 154254      53599 2016-03-08 16:03:00 Rodent control     Call Center   
## # ... with 225,179 more rows, and 18 more variables: status <int>,
## #   department <chr>, neighborhood <chr>, council_district <int>,
## #   ward <int>, tract <dbl>, public_works_division <int>,
## #   pli_division <int>, police_zone <int>, fire_zone <chr>, x <dbl>,
## #   y <dbl>, geo_accuracy <chr>, date <date>, time <S4: Period>,
## #   month <ord>, year <dbl>, yday <dbl>
glimpse(df) #get a summary of the dataframe
## Observations: 225,189
## Variables: 23
## $ `_id`                 <int> 154245, 154246, 154247, 154248, 154249, ...
## $ request_id            <int> 54111, 53833, 52574, 54293, 53560, 49519...
## $ created_on            <dttm> 2016-03-10 13:52:00, 2016-03-09 14:22:0...
## $ request_type          <chr> "Rodent control", "Rodent control", "Pot...
## $ request_origin        <chr> "Call Center", "Call Center", "Call Cent...
## $ status                <int> 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1...
## $ department            <chr> "Animal Care & Control", "Animal Care & ...
## $ neighborhood          <chr> "Middle Hill", "Squirrel Hill North", "L...
## $ council_district      <int> 6, 8, 9, NA, 9, 9, 9, 3, 9, 1, 4, 4, 9, ...
## $ ward                  <int> 5, 14, 12, NA, 13, 13, 13, 16, 13, 23, 1...
## $ tract                 <dbl> 42003050100, 42003140300, 42003120800, N...
## $ public_works_division <int> 3, 3, 2, NA, 2, 2, 2, 4, 2, 1, 4, 4, 2, ...
## $ pli_division          <int> 5, 14, 12, NA, 13, 13, 13, 16, 13, 23, 1...
## $ police_zone           <int> 2, 4, 5, NA, 5, 5, 5, 3, 5, 1, 6, 3, 5, ...
## $ fire_zone             <chr> "2-1", "2-18", "3-12", NA, "3-17", "3-17...
## $ x                     <dbl> -79.97765, -79.92450, -79.91455, NA, -79...
## $ y                     <dbl> 40.44579, 40.43986, 40.46527, NA, 40.459...
## $ geo_accuracy          <chr> "APPROXIMATE", "APPROXIMATE", "EXACT", "...
## $ date                  <date> 2016-03-10, 2016-03-09, 2016-03-03, 201...
## $ time                  <S4: Period> 13H 52M 0S, 14H 22M 0S, 7H 13M 0S...
## $ month                 <ord> Mar, Mar, Mar, Mar, Mar, Feb, Feb, Mar, ...
## $ year                  <dbl> 2016, 2016, 2016, 2016, 2016, 2016, 2016...
## $ yday                  <dbl> 70, 69, 63, 71, 68, 53, 53, 69, 64, 68, ...

The pipe

%>% means “and then”

%>% passes the dataframe to the next function

select

select() selects the columns you want to work with. You can also exclude columns using “-”

df %>% #select the dataframe
  select(date, request_type) #select the date and request_type columns
## # A tibble: 225,189 x 2
##    date       request_type             
##    <date>     <chr>                    
##  1 2016-03-10 Rodent control           
##  2 2016-03-09 Rodent control           
##  3 2016-03-03 Potholes                 
##  4 2016-03-11 Building Without a Permit
##  5 2016-03-08 Potholes                 
##  6 2016-02-22 Potholes                 
##  7 2016-02-22 Potholes                 
##  8 2016-03-09 Rodent control           
##  9 2016-03-04 Potholes                 
## 10 2016-03-08 Rodent control           
## # ... with 225,179 more rows

filter

filter() uses logic to include or exclude rows based on the criteria you set

You can translate the following code into this English sentence: Take our dataframe “df”, and then select the date and request_type columns, and then filter only the rows where the request_type is “Potholes”.

df %>% 
  select(date, request_type) %>% 
  filter(request_type == "Potholes") #use the string "Potholes" to filter the dataframe
## # A tibble: 31,735 x 2
##    date       request_type
##    <date>     <chr>       
##  1 2016-03-03 Potholes    
##  2 2016-03-08 Potholes    
##  3 2016-02-22 Potholes    
##  4 2016-02-22 Potholes    
##  5 2016-03-04 Potholes    
##  6 2016-03-11 Potholes    
##  7 2016-03-08 Potholes    
##  8 2016-03-08 Potholes    
##  9 2016-03-08 Potholes    
## 10 2016-03-08 Potholes    
## # ... with 31,725 more rows

mutate

mutate() adds new columns, or modifies existing columns

df %>% 
  select(date, request_type) %>% 
  filter(request_type == "Potholes") %>% 
  mutate(weekday = wday(date, label = TRUE)) #add the wday column for day of the week
## # A tibble: 31,735 x 3
##    date       request_type weekday
##    <date>     <chr>        <ord>  
##  1 2016-03-03 Potholes     Thu    
##  2 2016-03-08 Potholes     Tue    
##  3 2016-02-22 Potholes     Mon    
##  4 2016-02-22 Potholes     Mon    
##  5 2016-03-04 Potholes     Fri    
##  6 2016-03-11 Potholes     Fri    
##  7 2016-03-08 Potholes     Tue    
##  8 2016-03-08 Potholes     Tue    
##  9 2016-03-08 Potholes     Tue    
## 10 2016-03-08 Potholes     Tue    
## # ... with 31,725 more rows

group_by and summarize

group_by() and summarize() allow you to gather groups of rows and perform functions on them

Typical functions

  • sum()
  • mean()
  • sd() standard deviation
  • n() the number of rows
(df %>% 
  select(date, request_type) %>% #select columns
  filter(request_type == "Potholes") %>% #filter by "Potholes"
  mutate(month = month(date, label = TRUE)) %>% #add month column
  group_by(request_type, month) %>% #group by the unqiue request_type values and month values
  summarize(count = n()) %>% #summarize to count the number of rows in each combination of request_type and month
  arrange(desc(count)) -> df_potholes_month) #arrange the rows by the number of requests
## # A tibble: 12 x 3
## # Groups:   request_type [1]
##    request_type month count
##    <chr>        <ord> <int>
##  1 Potholes     Feb    5569
##  2 Potholes     Mar    3961
##  3 Potholes     Apr    3873
##  4 Potholes     May    3388
##  5 Potholes     Jan    3089
##  6 Potholes     Jun    2896
##  7 Potholes     Jul    2688
##  8 Potholes     Aug    1913
##  9 Potholes     Nov    1344
## 10 Potholes     Sep    1260
## 11 Potholes     Oct    1113
## 12 Potholes     Dec     641

Put your code in parentheses to execute it AND print the output in the console

Making graphs with 311 data

ggplot2

  • aesthetics (the columns you want to graph with)
  • geoms (the shapes you want to use to graph the data)
ggplot(data = _ , aes(x = _, y = _)) +
  geom_()

Graph the number of pothole requests per month

ggplot(data = df_potholes_month, aes(x = month, y = count)) +
  geom_col()

Pipe your data directly into ggplot2

df_potholes_month %>% 
  ggplot(aes(x = month, y = count)) + #put the month column on the x axis, count on the y axis
  geom_col() #graph the data with columns

Make it pretty. Add a title, subtitle, axes labels, captions, and themes

df_potholes_month %>% 
  ggplot(aes(month, count)) +
  geom_col() + 
  labs(title = "Pothole requests to Pittsburgh 311",
       x = "",
       y = "Number of requests",
       caption = "Source: Western Pennsylvania Regional Datacenter") +
  theme_bw()

One problems with this graph is that the data is not complete for the years 2015 and 2018

df %>%
  distinct(year, date) %>% #get the unique combinations of year and date
  count(year) #shortcut for group_by + summarize for counting. returns column "n". calculate how many days of data each year has
## # A tibble: 4 x 2
##    year     n
##   <dbl> <int>
## 1 2015.   231
## 2 2016.   366
## 3 2017.   365
## 4 2018.   100

Instead of plotting the raw sum, we can calculate and plot the mean number of requests per month

(df %>% 
  filter(date >= "2016-01-01", #only select the rows where the date is after 2016-01-01 and before 2018-01-1
         date <= "2018-01-01",
         request_type == "Potholes") %>% 
  count(request_type, year, month) -> df_filtered)
## # A tibble: 24 x 4
##    request_type  year month     n
##    <chr>        <dbl> <ord> <int>
##  1 Potholes     2016. Jan     222
##  2 Potholes     2016. Feb     594
##  3 Potholes     2016. Mar     973
##  4 Potholes     2016. Apr     759
##  5 Potholes     2016. May     822
##  6 Potholes     2016. Jun     784
##  7 Potholes     2016. Jul     604
##  8 Potholes     2016. Aug     556
##  9 Potholes     2016. Sep     364
## 10 Potholes     2016. Oct     318
## # ... with 14 more rows
df_filtered %>% 
  group_by(month) %>% 
  summarize(mean_requests = mean(n)) -> df_filtered_months
df_filtered_months %>% 
  ggplot(aes(month, mean_requests)) +
  geom_col() +
    labs(title = "Pothole requests to Pittsburgh 311",
       x = "",
       y = "Mean number of requests",
       caption = "Source: Western Pennsylvania Regional Datacenter") +
  theme_bw()

Make a line graph of the number of pothole requests in the dataset by date

df %>% 
  filter(request_type == "Potholes") %>% 
  count(date) #group_by and summarize the number of rows per date
## # A tibble: 983 x 2
##    date           n
##    <date>     <int>
##  1 2015-04-20   119
##  2 2015-04-21   101
##  3 2015-04-22   109
##  4 2015-04-23   102
##  5 2015-04-24    84
##  6 2015-04-27    85
##  7 2015-04-28   101
##  8 2015-04-29   107
##  9 2015-04-30    83
## 10 2015-05-01    66
## # ... with 973 more rows
#assign labels to objects to save some typing
my_title <- "Pothole requests to Pittsburgh 311"
my_caption <- "Source: Western Pennsylvania Regional Datacenter"

df %>% 
  filter(request_type == "Potholes") %>% 
  count(date) %>% 
  ggplot(aes(date, n)) +
  geom_line() + #use a line to graph the data
  labs(title = my_title, #use the object you created earlier
       x = "",
       y = "Number of requests",
       caption = my_caption) + #use the object you created earlier
  theme_bw(base_family = 18) #base_family modifies the size of the font

Note that ggplot2 automatically formats the axis labels for dates

Graph the data by number of requests per day of the year

(df %>% 
  select(request_type, date) %>% 
  filter(request_type == "Potholes") %>% 
  mutate(year = year(date), #create a year column
         yday = yday(date)) %>% #create a day of the year column
  count(year, yday) -> df_day_of_year)  
## # A tibble: 983 x 3
##     year  yday     n
##    <dbl> <dbl> <int>
##  1 2015.  110.   119
##  2 2015.  111.   101
##  3 2015.  112.   109
##  4 2015.  113.   102
##  5 2015.  114.    84
##  6 2015.  117.    85
##  7 2015.  118.   101
##  8 2015.  119.   107
##  9 2015.  120.    83
## 10 2015.  121.    66
## # ... with 973 more rows
df_day_of_year %>% 
  ggplot(aes(yday, n, group = year)) + #color the lines by year. as.factor() turns the year column from integer to factor, which has an inherent order
  geom_line() + 
  labs(title = my_title,
       x = "Day of the year",
       y = "Number of requests",
       caption = my_caption) +
  theme_bw(base_family = 18)

That plotted a line for each year, but there is no way to tell which line corresponds with which year

Color the lines by the year

df_day_of_year %>% 
  ggplot(aes(yday, n, color = as.factor(year))) + #color the lines by year. #as.factor() turns the year column from integer to factor (ordinal string)
  geom_line() + 
  labs(title = my_title,
       x = "Day of the year",
       y = "Number of requests",
       caption = my_caption) +
  theme_bw(base_family = 18)

Graph the cumulative sum of pothole requests per year

(df %>% 
  select(request_type, date) %>% 
  filter(request_type == "Potholes") %>% 
  mutate(year = year(date),
         yday = yday(date)) %>% 
  arrange(date) %>% #always arrange your data for cumulative sums
  group_by(year, yday) %>%
  summarize(n = n()) %>% 
  ungroup() %>% #ungroup () resets whatever grouping you had before
  group_by(year) %>% 
  mutate(cumsum = cumsum(n)) -> df_cumulative_sum) #calculate the cumulative sum per year
## # A tibble: 983 x 4
## # Groups:   year [4]
##     year  yday     n cumsum
##    <dbl> <dbl> <int>  <int>
##  1 2015.  110.   119    119
##  2 2015.  111.   101    220
##  3 2015.  112.   109    329
##  4 2015.  113.   102    431
##  5 2015.  114.    84    515
##  6 2015.  117.    85    600
##  7 2015.  118.   101    701
##  8 2015.  119.   107    808
##  9 2015.  120.    83    891
## 10 2015.  121.    66    957
## # ... with 973 more rows
df_cumulative_sum %>% 
  ggplot(aes(yday, cumsum, color = as.factor(year))) +
  geom_line(size = 2) +
  labs(title = my_title,
       x = "Day of the year",
       y = "Cumulative sum of requests",
       caption = my_caption) +
  scale_color_discrete("Year") +
  theme_bw(base_family = 18)

Making an area chart

Since 2015 and 2018 have incomplete data, filter them out

df %>% 
  count(request_type, sort = TRUE) %>% 
  top_n(5) %>% #select the top 5 request types
  ungroup() -> df_top_requests
df %>% 
  filter(date >= "2016-01-01", #only select the rows where the date is after 2016-01-01 and before 2018-01-1
         date <= "2018-01-01") %>% 
  semi_join(df_top_requests) %>% #joins are ways to combine two dataframes
  count(request_type, month) %>% 
  ggplot(aes(month, n, group = request_type, fill = request_type)) +
  geom_area() +
  scale_fill_discrete("Request type") + #change the name of the color legend
  scale_y_continuous(expand = c(0, 0)) + #remove the padding around the edges
  scale_x_discrete(expand = c(0, 0)) +
  labs(title = "Top 5 types of 311 requests in Pittsburgh",
       subtitle = "2016 to 2017",
       x = "",
       y = "Number of requests",
       caption = my_caption) +
  theme_bw(base_family = 18) +
  theme(panel.grid = element_blank()) #remove the gridlines fom the plot

Faceting

Facets allow you to split a chart by a variable

Where do pothole requests come from?

df %>% 
  count(request_origin, sort = TRUE)
## # A tibble: 10 x 2
##    request_origin          n
##    <chr>               <int>
##  1 Call Center        143716
##  2 Website             41106
##  3 Control Panel       26144
##  4 Report2Gov iOS       6272
##  5 Twitter              4425
##  6 Report2Gov Android   2371
##  7 Text Message         1086
##  8 Report2Gov Website     42
##  9 Email                  22
## 10 QAlert Mobile iOS       5

Make a line chart for the number of requests per day

Use facets to distinguish where the request came from

df %>% 
  select(date, request_type, request_origin) %>% 
  filter(request_type == "Potholes") %>% 
  count(date, request_type, request_origin) %>% 
  ggplot(aes(x = date, y = n)) +
    geom_line() +
    facet_wrap(~request_origin) + #facet by request_origin
    labs(title = my_title,
         subtitle = "By Request Origin",
         x = "",
         y = "Number of requests",
         caption = my_caption) +
    theme_bw(base_family = 18)

Mapping

Load the ggmap package, which works with ggplot2

library(ggmap)

Select the request_type, x, and y columns. x and y are longitude and latitude

(df %>% 
  select(request_type, x, y) %>% 
  filter(!is.na(x), !is.na(y),
         request_type == "Potholes") -> df_map) #remove missing x and y values
## # A tibble: 31,735 x 3
##    request_type     x     y
##    <chr>        <dbl> <dbl>
##  1 Potholes     -79.9  40.5
##  2 Potholes     -79.9  40.5
##  3 Potholes     -79.9  40.5
##  4 Potholes     -79.9  40.5
##  5 Potholes     -79.9  40.5
##  6 Potholes     -80.0  40.4
##  7 Potholes     -79.9  40.5
##  8 Potholes     -79.9  40.5
##  9 Potholes     -79.9  40.5
## 10 Potholes     -79.9  40.5
## # ... with 31,725 more rows
city_map <-  get_map("North Oakland, Pittsburgh, PA", 
                     zoom = 12,
                     maptype = "toner", 
                     source = "stamen")
## Map from URL : http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/staticmap?center=North+Oakland,+Pittsburgh,+PA&zoom=12&size=640x640&scale=2&maptype=terrain&sensor=false
## Information from URL : http://maps.googleapis.com/maps/api/geocode/json?address=North%20Oakland,%20Pittsburgh,%20PA&sensor=false
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1137/1542.png
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1138/1542.png
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1139/1542.png
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1137/1543.png
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1138/1543.png
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1139/1543.png
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1137/1544.png
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1138/1544.png
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1139/1544.png
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1137/1545.png
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1138/1545.png
## Map from URL : http://tile.stamen.com/toner/12/1139/1545.png
(city_map <- ggmap(city_map))

Put the data on the map

city_map +
  geom_point(data = df_map, aes(x, y, color = request_type)) #graph the data with dots

There is too much data on the graph. Make the dots more transparent to show density

city_map +
  geom_point(data = df_map, aes(x, y, color = request_type), alpha = .1) #graph the data with dots

Still not great

Density plots are better for showing overplotted data

#Put the data on the map
city_map +
  stat_density_2d(data = df_map, #Using a 2d density contour
                  aes(x, #longitude
                      y, #latitude,
                      fill = request_type,
                      alpha = ..level..), #Use alpha so you can see the map under the data
                  geom = "polygon") + #We want the contour in a polygon
  scale_alpha_continuous(range = c(.1, 1)) + #manually set the range for the alpha
  guides(alpha = guide_legend("Number of requests"),
         fill = FALSE) +
  labs(title = "Pothole requests in Pittsburgh",
       subtitle = "311 data",
       x = "",
       y = "",
       caption = my_caption) +
  theme_bw(base_family = 18) +
  theme(axis.text = element_blank())